Context. Context. Context.
When we take verses we have to place them in context. Looking at 1st Peter 2:13-26 we can see that this is addressed to slaves. Peter is answering questions to a slave who is under a master. The now Christian slave says, "well if I am free in Christ I should be free in this life." Peters response. Nope, you need to serve and follow the example of Jesus (as the suffering servant).
Since we are looking at justice right now we see it in several places here... verse 13&14... "Be subject for the Lord's sake to every human institution, whether it be to the emperor as supreme, or to governors as sent by him to punish those who do evil and to praise those who do good." What do we see... God has ordained governments to enforce justice. God calls us to be submissive to these governments. The Lord loves justice and government is appointed to enforce this justice on this earth. What does this mean? This means cops, prison, courts, and death penalty (in our modern context). These are appointed by God. Now they may have some wrongs that we can correct, but they are instituted by God.
The second place I see justice and a misuse of justice is in 20-21... "For what credit is it if, when you sin and are beaten for it, you endure? But if when you do good and suffer for it you endure, this is a gracious thing in the sight of God. 21For to this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, so that you might follow in his steps." Peter says in 20 there that you get what you deserve when you are beaten because of sin. True justice is paying for your sin. Whether this is in this present life or in the life to come justice requires punishment. (Thank God that he sent Jesus to take the punishment for my sin). However, when you are beaten for doing good then you are blessed when you endure. So in context he is talking to slaves, but I think it can still apply to us. We are told time and time again throughout the Bible that we will be persecuted. If they persecuted Christ they will persecute us. We must endure this with the example of Christ.
I do not think however that this passage is really referring to living out present day justice in the sense of a life of pacifism. This passage readily acknowledges that us as Christians must be subject to a government that enforces justice and that justice needs to be carried out thru physical and present means.
I will post a passage soon. But would love to hear your thoughts.